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Canadian Journal of Pain: Bridging the Gap

Bridging the gap: Identifying diverse stakeholder needs and barriers to accessing evidence and resources for children’s pain

Graphical representation or Infographic outlining the key stakeholders and recommendations described in the papthe published paper


Stakeholder engagement in knowledge mobilization (KMb) activities can bridge the knowledge to action gap within children’s pain but may be influenced by how well stakeholder needs and barriers to evidence-based resources are addressed. The needs of different Canadian stakeholder groups related to children’s pain have not been examined, limiting the degree to which KMb efforts can be tailored to each group.


The study aim was to identify shared and unique needs, barriers, and accessibility of evidence for children’s pain across three stakeholder groups: knowledge users (i.e., health professionals, administrators, policymakers, educators), researchers (including trainees), and patients, caregivers, and family members.


This study comprised an online needs assessment survey. Analyses included descriptive statistics, one-way analyses of variances, and chi-square tests to examine differences between stakeholder groups. Open-ended responses were analyzed using conventional content analysis.


A total of 711 stakeholders completed the survey. Educational materials were the most utilized evidence-based resources among all stakeholders. Researchers and patients/caregivers/family members found resources significantly less accessible than knowledge users (P = 0.008). Knowledge of evidence was the primary barrier across all stakeholder groups (69.2%, n = 492); however, each group reported a need for stakeholder-specific resources. Finally, stakeholders desired opportunities to engage in the KMb process through partnerships and an increased awareness of children’s pain.


Though stakeholders experience common barriers to evidence-based resources for children’s pain, their needs to address these barriers are diverse. Evidence-based resources should be tailored for stakeholders’ contexts, with diverse audiences in mind.

Want to learn more? Click here to read (open access): MacKenzie, N.E., Chambers, C.T., Parker, J.A., Aubrey, E., Jordan, I., Richards, D.P., Marianayagam, J., Ali, S., Campbell, F., Finley, G.A., Gruenwoldt, E., Stevens, B., Stinson, J., & Birnie, K.A. (2022). Bridging the gap: Identifying diverse stakeholder needs and barriers to accessing evidence and resources for children’s pain. Canadian Journal of Pain, 6(1), 48-64. doi:10.1080/24740527.2022.2045192. 

French-language Infographic:

IWK Health Centre
Centre for Pediatric Pain Research
Dalhousie University